Research Collaboration

Our experience in product development of performance materials includes: amorphous, crystalline, polycrystalline, and polymorphic morphologies. We have extensive knowledge and experience in the kinetics and thermodynamics governing interface failure. Our research projects listed below led to advances in both coatings and adhesion. Our R&D is a blend of solid state physics, solid state chemistry and engineering knowhow, featuring:

  • Energetics, Thermodynamics and Kinetics in Solid and Pseudo-solid materials
  • R&D in Advanced Adhesive Technology
  • Developing New Material Interfaces
  • Confidential Consultancy in all the above, please download our NDA here.
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  • 2024-New research into CW damage testing has thrown up some unexpected data related to methodology. CW damage is classically governed by a total dosage/time mechanism determining the power levels at which steady-state equilibria are obtained. Scanning is not a CW test procedure as time constraints disallow steady state conditions. Despite this, true damage occurred in scan tests. CW use does not classically involve a moving target. However, new applications can see surface features giving rise to damage when scanning is used. These events are scanning-induced and happen even when the coating threshold is far higher when tested classically.
  • 2023-24 BRL commenced investigation in radiation induced contaminants. Ongoing tests found reaction to laser light was not only power sensitive but also total energy related.
  • 2022-23 BRL new research program launched - identifying errors in damage testing at wavelengths differing from the target 2 micron tests. Testing at 1 µm can be used, with corroborating additional tests and corrections to obtain approximate 2 µm results. Direct laser damage testing at 2 µm is inaccurate due to a plethora of problems associated with 2 µm sensors and beam diagnostics. However, as more test houses adopt this methodology failures in the end product testing are becoming common. Auxiliary test procedures were examined and remedies explored.
  • 2015-16 BRL successfully investigated the feasibility of a novel way to qualify laser optics and optical coatings in regions where hydroxyl (–OH) absorbance occurs. We were given the opportunity to test out alternative test methods for 2 & 3-micron laser damage. This is the range -OH resonance frequencies accelerate damage and lower the threshold from what would be expected from pure energy calculations. We are presently collecting data to gain quantitative confidence in the technique.
  • 2012-13 we completed our first SMART project to give us access to a source of wavelengths ranging from 355 nm to 1600 nm.
    Other Related Research:
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  • BRL presents at SPIE Security + Defence Virtual Exhibition - "BRL: Laser damage for optical coaters", Proc. SPIE SD20EX, SPIE ESD20, 18 September 2020.
  • In light of the COVID-19 pandemic, Kieran R Ross released our planned demonstration online in video format, titled "Laser Damage for Optical Coaters" conducted via virtual media for SPIE Photonics Europe March 2020.
  • Kieran Mulholland invited talk, "Insights into Laser Damage Testing", PHOTONEX Optical Engineering & Design Meeting V, Coventry, 13th Oct 2016.
  • Rona E Belford presented the demo talk on "Laser Damage Basics". SPIE Photonics Europe Brussels 6th April 2016.
  • Rona E. Belford gave the demo talk "Laser Damage Basics", SPIE Photonics Europe, Brussels, 5th Apr 2016.
  • Rona E. Belford invited talk, "Laser Damage - A Balanced View", Photonex Optical Engineering & Design Meeting III, Coventry, 16th Oct 2013.
  • Sumant Sood and Rona E. Belford, "Strained silicon via plasma enhanced dCTE bonding", International Symposium on Semiconductor Wafer Bonding, Cancun Mexico, Oct/Nov 2006.
  • Rona E. Belford, Qing Xu, Sumant Sood, Antonio Acosta, Alan Thrift, Jordan Zell, Lloyd Bosworth, "Novel Process Combining SOI and Strained Circuitry", 2006 IEEE International SOI Conference, New York, Oct 2-5 2006.
  • Sumant Sood and Rona E. Belford, "Surface Activation Using Remote Plasma for a New Wafer Bonding Route to Strained-Si", 209th Electromechanical Society Meeting, Denver, May 2006.
  • Rona E. Belford, "No Strain, No Gain", invited paper, IEEE International Electron Device Materials Colloquium, Feb 2006.
  • Rona E. Belford, Wei Zhao, Jim Potashnik, Qingmin Liu and Alan Seabaugh, "Performance Augmented CMOS Using Back-End Uniaxial Strain", Device Research Conference, San Diego, Jun 2002.
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  • Rona E. Belford, Kieran R Ross, "Testing Matters", including Whitepaper "High Power Laser Damage - Threshold Elevation", Electro Optics Magazine, March 2021
  • Rona E. Belford "Laser power in the making", Viewpoint Article, Electro Optics Magazine, 12th Aug 2020.
  • Rona E. Belford, Kieran R Ross, "High Power Laser Damage and Annealing", Electro Optics Magazine, 30th June 2020.
  • Rona E. Belford, Kieran R Ross, "Understanding the differences in high-power pulsed and CW damage", Electro Optics Magazine, 1st April 2020.
  • Rona E. Belford, Mike Wilde, "Coating techniques push laser component limits", Electro Optics Magazine, 25th May 2018.
  • Rona E Belford, "A New Slant on Strain", Web Exclusive Featured Article, Semiconductor International Magazine, 1st Oct 2006.
  • Rona E Belford, "Smart mechanical strain techniques to improve device performance", Featured Article, Semiconductor Manufacturing Magazine, Sep 2006.
  • Rona E Belford featured in "Silicon Takes the Strain", IEE Review special report on Microelectronics Dec 2003.
  • Rona E. Belford and Sumant Sood, "Surface activation using remote plasma for silicon to quartz wafer bonding", Microsystem Technologies: Vol. 15(3), 407 2009.
  • R. E. Belford, Q. Xu, A. Acosta, S. Sood and L. Lu "Anisotropic Mechanical Stress Route to Optimally Strained Metal Oxide Semiconductor Field Effect Transistors", Submitted to IEEE Trans 2007.
  • Sumant Sood and Rona E. Belford, "Strained silicon via plasma enhanced dCTE bonding", ECS Transactions, Vol. 3 (6), 99-106, 2006.
  • R. E. Belford, B. P. Guo, Q. Xu, S. Sood, A. A. Thrift, A. Teren, A. Acosta, L. A. Bosworth, and J. S. Zell "Strain enhanced p-type metal oxide semiconductor field effect transistors". J. Appl. Phys. 100, 064903 2006.
  • Sumant Sood and Rona E. Belford, "Surface Activation Using Remote Plasma for a New Wafer Bonding Route to Strained-Si", ECS Transactions, Vol. 2 (4), 23-29, 2006.
  • Becca M. Haugerud, Mustayeen, B. Nayeem, Ramkumar Krithivasan, Yuan Lu, Chendong Zhu, John D. Cressler, Rona E. Belford, Alvin J. Joseph, "The effects of mechanical planar biaxial strain in Si/SiGe HBT BiCMOS technology", Solid-State Electronics 49 pp 986–990 2005.
  • B. M. Haugerud, L. A. Bosworth and R. E. Belford, "Elevated-Temperature Electrical Characteristics of Mechanically Strained-Si Devices", J. Appl. Phys. Vol. 95, No. 1 pp 2792-2796, Mar 2004.
  • Wei Zhao, Jianli He, Rona E. Belford, Lars-Erik Wernersson, and Alan Seabaugh, "Partially-Depleted SOI MOSFETs Under Uniaxial Tensile Strain", IEEE Trans. Electron Devices, Vol. 51, No. 3, pp 317-323, Mar 2004.
  • B. M. Haugerud, L. A. Bosworth and R. E. Belford, "Mechanically Induced Strain Enhancement of Metal Oxide Semiconductor Field Effect Transistors", J. Appl. Phys. Vol. 94, No.6 pp 4102-4107, 2003.
  • Rona E. Belford, Wei Zhao; J. Potashnik,Qingmin Liu and Alan Seabaugh, "Performance-augmented CMOS using back-end uniaxial strain", Device Research Conference, 2002, 60th DRC. 24-26 Jun 2002, Conference Digest Page(s): 41 - 42.
  • Rona E. Belford, "Uniaxial, Tensile Strained-Si Devices", J. Elect. Mat., Vol. 30, No.7, 2001.
  • P C W Brehier and Rona E. Belford, "Effects of Ion Migration and Electrolysis in Glass Electrode Fabrication" Anal. Proc. Vol. 32, pp 327-328, 1995.
  • Rona E. Belford and P C W Brehier, "Thick-Film Reference Electrodes for Solid State pH Measurement", Anal. Proc. Vol. 32, pp 323-326, 1995.
  • S Jiang, J D Myers, D Rhonehouse, M J Myers, Rona E. Belford and Scott Hamlin, "Laser and Thermal Performance of a New Erbium Doped Phosphate Laser Glass", SPIE, Vol. 2138, 1994.
  • Jiang, J D Myers, Rona E. Belford, et al. "Flashlamp Pumped Lasing of Ho:Germanium Oxide Glass at Room Temperature", Advanced Solid State Lasers, Tech. Dig., OSA, Washington DC, pp 329-331, 1994.
  • E Hajto, P J S Ewen, Rona E. Belford and A E Owen, "Interference Grating Fabrication in Spin Coated As2S3 Films", Thin Solid Films, 200, pp.229-237, 1991.
  • E Hajto, Rona E. Belford, P J S Ewen and A E Owen, "Electrical Properties of Silver Doped As-S Glasses", JNCS, 137 and 138, pp.1039-1042, 1991.
  • R. E. Belford and A E Owen, "Interfacial Aspects of Glass", Invited Chapter in "Glasses and Glass-ceramics", Ch.9, pp.316-335, Ed. M H Lewis, Publ. Chap. & Hall, 1989.
  • Rona E. Belford, E Hajto and A E Owen, "The Selective Removal of the Negative Photo Resist System Ag-As-S", Thin Solid Films, 173, 1989.
  • E Hajto, Rona E. Belford, P J S Ewen and A E Owen, "Dry Etched High Resolution Positive and Negative Inorganic Photoresists", JNCS 115, pp.129-131, 1989.
  • Rona E. Belford, R G Kelly and A E Owen, "Thick Film Devices", Invited Chapter in "Chemical Sensors", Chapter 11, pp.236-255, Ed. T E Edmonds, Publ. Blackie & Son, 1988.
  • Rona E. Belford and A E Owen, "The Selective Removal of the Negative Photo Resist System Ag-As-S by a Dry Etch Plasma of Sulfur Gas", Patent App.No.8816978.4, 1988.
  • Rona E. Belford and A E Owen, "Temperature Dependent AC Impedance Studies of Solid Glass to Metal Contacts in Solid State Glass pH Sensors", JNCS, Vol.92, No.1, pp.73-88, 1987.
  • Rona E. Belford, A E Owen and R G Kelly, "Thick Film Hybrid pH Sensors", Sensors and Actuators, 11, pp.387-398, 1987.
  • S Reynolds and Rona E. Belford, "Amorphous Electronic Materials and Their Applications" Invited review for "Physics in Technology", Vol.18, No.5, pp. 193-302, 1987.
  • E Hajto, P J S Ewen, Rona E. Belford, J Hajto and A E Owen, "Optical Properties of Spin Coated Amorphous Chalcogenide Thin Films", JNCS, Vol. 97 & 98, pp.1191-1194, 1987.
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